Abstract:In this paper, we have discussed some properties of the mean values of an entire function represented by Dirichlet series in the usual notation. It is obvious that generally 𝜆∗ ≤ 𝜆 and 𝜌∗ ≤ 𝜌, there are entire Dirichlet series for which 𝜆∗ < 𝜆 and 𝜌∗ < 𝜌. Hence, we have generally to distinguish between the limits as well as types of 𝑓(𝑠) belonging to the same order 𝜌∗ (0 < 𝜌∗ < ∞). In this paper, we obtain some result of 𝑚2,𝑘(𝜎) for the mean value of an entire Dirichlet series.
Author:Radha, Balbir Singh
Abstract:In this paper, we introduce the notions of random, comparable MYγ contraction and random, comparable Meir-Keeler contraction in the framework of complete random G-metric spaces. We examine the existence of a random fixed point for these contractions. We express illustrative examples to support the presented results
Author:Balbir Singh, Vishal Gupta And Pawan Kumar
Abstract:In this paper, we prove a general common fixed point theorem for two pairs of weakly compatible self-mappings in Fuzzy metric space satisfying a generalized Meir-Keeler type contractive condition
Author:Sanjay Kumar, Sachin Vashistha, Anamika, Balbir Singh
Abstract:In the present paper, first we introduce generalized 𝜓 − ∅ −weak contraction condition that involves cubic and quadratic terms of distance function 𝑑(𝑥, 𝑦) and then proved common fixed point theorems for compatible mappings. Secondly, we deal with variants of compatible mappings type (K), type (R) and type (E). At the end, we provide applications of our results.
Author:Dr. Vishal Gupta, Mohammad Saeed Khan, Balbir Singh, Sanjay Kumar
Abstract:In this paper, we prove some general common fixed point theorems using generalized contractive condition of Meir‐Keeler type for two pairs of weakly compatible self‐mappings in Menger spaces. Some suitable examples are also given to support our theorems.
Author:Pawan Kumar, Neeru Yadav, Balbir Singh
Abstract:In this paper, first we introduce generalized 𝜓 −weak contraction condition that involves cubic and quadratic terms of distance function 𝑑(𝑥, 𝑦). Secondly; we discuss common fixed point theorems for weakly compatible and weakly compatible mappings along with property (E.A.) and common limit range property. At the end, we provide an example and an application of our main theorem satisfying integral type contraction condition. Keywords: 𝜓 − weak contraction; weakly compatible mappings; property (E.A.); common limit range property. 2010 Mathematical Subject Classification: 47H10, 54H25, 68U10.
Author:Reena , Balbir Singh
Abstract:In This Paper, Our aim is to establish and prove some common fixed point theorems for a pair of conditionally reciprocally continuous mappings in the setting of G-Metric spaces.Our results unify and extend certain fixed points results present in the literature.
Author:Aarju , Pawan Kumar , Balbir Singh
Abstract:In this paper, we prove common fixed point theorems for weakly commuting and its variants point wise R-weakly commuting and reciprocal continuous mappings, R-weakly commuting mappings of type (P) using generalized 𝜓 −weak contraction condition that involves cubic and quadratic terms of distance function 𝑑(𝑥, 𝑦).
Author:Ajay Pal , Balbir Singh
Abstract:In this paper, we establish the concept of random, comparable MTγ contraction and random, comparable Meir-Keeler contraction in the frame of complete random fuzzy metric space. We also illustrate examples to support our presented results
Author:Radha , Balbir Singh
Abstract:In this paper, we have extended the concept of contraction by introducing DContraction defined on a family of = of bounded function . Also, a new notion of fixed function has been extended G-metric space. Some fixed theorems with illustrate examples have also been given to verify the effectiveness of our result. In 2019, Vishal et. al  presented some fixed function theorems using the notion of fixed function and D-Contraction in complete metric space. Following this concept, a sequence is constructed in G-metric space with three different dose function which converges to a fixed function. An application based on the best approximation of treatment plan for tumor patients by splitting DDC matrix into three components with three dose functions.
Author:Radha, Balbir Singh
Abstract:In this paper, we present (α −ψ)-Meir-Keeler-Khan contraction type mappings for two pairs of weakly compatible self-mappings in G-metric space.
Abstract:Economic growth is defined as an increasable GDP over a time (normally it is taken as an year).Rate of growth =𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑡 = 𝐺𝑡−𝐺𝑡−1 𝐺𝑡−1 ∗ 100 where GT and GT-1 carry their usual meanings. The indicator of growth are increase in GDP, increase in per capita GDP, increase in standard of living, increase in consumption, savings, Investment, and volume of employment, improvement in technology through advancement in science, engineering research through skill development along with carrying out innovations, reduction in poverty and inequalities, development of infrastructure, health, education and sanitation and the last but not the least inclusive and sustainable growth. Wherever growth process is undertaken, generally it starts with the concept of unbalanced growth (the ideal given by Prof Hirschman).As such there are regional and sectoral imbalances and instabilities are generated into the system. Hence the idea of creating special economic zone came into being with a specific objective to increase foreign direct Investment and exports in the country. Capital plays a vital role in the development process and after the adoption of new economic policy 1991(L+P+G) the world has become a global village. At that time the gain reality of foreign exchange crisis come no longer be cancelled. Economics has been a subject known as a political economy. SEZ has been the brain of child of the government led by former PM and role economist Prof.Manmohan Singh. Therefore a through probe into the idea of SEZ is needed in the light of the change of the Government.
Author:Vandana Kaushik , Vikas Kumar , Deepak Kumar , Ravi Kumar , Vishal Singh , Manoj Kumar, Sanjeev K. Sharma
Abstract:This paper reports the effect of aging, thickness, and annealing temperature on microstructural and optical properties of sol-gel dip-coated BaTiO3 (BTO) thin films. The absence of any sharp peaks in the XRD pattern confirmed the amorphous nature of thin films regardless of the aging time of the solution and the thickness. Annealed BTO thin films showed the polycrystalline structure of films, which indicated the formation of a singlephase compound, and increased the intensity with respect to the annealing temperature from 550 to 650 ◦C. The crystallite size of annealed films increased from 19.44 nm to 23.6 nm, while the lattice strain and dislocation density decreased from 6.63 × 10− 3 to 5.65 × 10− 3 and 2.65 × 1011 to 1.79 × 1011 cm− 2 as the annealing temperature increased from 550 to 650 ◦C, respectively. The bandgap of as-deposited (solution aged from 48 - 96 h) films decreased from 3.90 to 3.87 eV, while the bandgap of annealed films increased from 3.19 to 3.86 eV as the annealing temperature increased from 550 to 650 ◦C owing to releasing the defects of films. The near band edge emission (NBE) of all annealed samples was observed to be 361 nm which is in close agreement with the estimated bandgap. The variation of aging, thickness, and annealing temperature of BTO thin films can significantly improve the physical properties of optoelectronic applications.
Author:Aarti, D.R. Agarwal
Abstract:A special Economic zone was the brain child of the Government led by a noted economist Dr. Manmhohan Singh, the then prime minister of India. Special means special, where a all round development of that particular area. To attract a number of economic activates, investors were give so many concessions and reliefs in order to develop the economy of that area. As a result, a number of SEZ units were set up across the country and they were enjoying tax – exemptions under the then existing system eg- services tax, central sales tax, VAT and other taxed under the federal structure. Now these units are facing the challenges with the introduction of a new tax know as GST (a revolutionary change in the indirect tax system – Indirect taxes are those taxed where the impact and incidence of the tax is on different person/organization/enterprises etc.) GST Tax structure has been designed on the lives because more than 150 countries have already adopted this system. GST is an indirect tax which subsume all indirect taxes in its orbit – i.e. taxes of the State Government, Central Government and local bodies. It was expected that this tax would give a to the economy so far as the net collection of revenue concerned and also bring transparency and accountability in the tax system. But is we look to the revenue collection of GST. The Centre is not in a position to meet its obligations in the financial year 2021-21. Tax collections are falling short for from expectations – May be due to covid-19 and subsequent harsh lockdown and its consequences. This paper examines primarily the impact of GST on SEZ.
Author:Youngwook Noh , Jaehak Shin , Horim Lee , Gyu Young Kim , Manoj Kumar and Dongjin Lee
Abstract:Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires (NWs) are wide-bandgap semiconductors that absorb ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Various post-treatment processes have been studied to improve the optical properties of the as-grown ZnO NWs. Among them, Ag nanoparticles (NPs) effectively improved the optical properties on the surface of the ZnO NWs. In this study, ZnO NWs were synthesized via the hydrothermal synthesis method. ZnO NWs were decorated with Ag NPs on the surface of the ZnO NWs in a silver nitrate (AgNO3 ) aqueous solution by intense pulsed light (IPL) irradiation. Ag NPs were successfully decorated under the following conditions: aqueous AgNO3 solution of 100 nM, an energy of 1 J/cm2 , and an exposure time of 8 ms. The responsivity and sensitivity of the ZnO NW UV photodetectors increased by 7.43 and 3.37 times, respectively. The IPL process makes it possible to decorate Ag NPs in a simple manner within an extremely short time
Author:D. R. Agarwal, Deepika Jain
Abstract:The bolt comes from the blue: all of a sudden India had the first case of covid-19 in the month of Jan 2020, three people from Kerala who returned from Wuhan. At Prinaton University, a webinar was held in the 2nd week of April 2020, economics noble laureate A. Deaton said, “Countries with strong Administration and health systems could enforce social spacing, comprehensive testing, isolation and treatment. But in poor countries with weak administrative and medical capacity, shutdowns would not check the disease. Social distancing was impossible in densely populated urban slums, crowded bazaars and huts, where several people slept. Virus testing capacity weak, so detection, isolation and treatment were highly incomplete and the disease would spread during shutdowns".1 Although Prof. Deaton has not named India, but really we were not prepared for this. An economic activity is concerned with activities that secure survival to man. The physical survival gets extended according to technological base is broad enough. Traditional economic theory assumes that individuals and other economic agents behave rationallyoptimum allocation of resources such as to obtain the least cost combination of factors, max satisfaction to the consumer etc. But behavioural economics is the study of how people make choices in the real world-particularly when there are uncertainties like natural disasters, Amphan, Nisarga, pollution, entering of a swarm of locust and pandemic like covid-19 and the consequences there of. In such situations study of human behaviour has its multidimensional approach. This research paper is an outcome of this behavioral approach.
Author:Priti kokcha , Dr Divya Tyagi
Abstract:Catalytic wet oxidation is an amazing procedure for the treatment of high center obstinate natural wastewater. The help and impulse parts include heterogeneous catalysts, and the principle stimulus, co-force and co-impulse sections. The principle impulse and co-force are the fundamental impacting elements of the catalyst. The game plan procedures for impulse incorporate precipitation method, impregnation system and impregnation precipitation strategy. The introduction appraisal lists of heterogeneous catalysts incorporate the development, security, selectivity and hostile to harmful strength, mechanical steadiness of the catalysts. as indicated by the guideline of substance move, the heterogeneous catalytic reaction measure includes seven phases. Catalysis based chemical synthesis represents 60% of the present chemical items and 90% of current chemical cycles and thus it is of significant significance for chemical industry, which fabricates esteem - added fine chemicals. Catalysis advancement and its arrangement subsequently become fundamental. Catalysis can be characterized as a speed increase of the pace of a cycle or response, achieved by a catalyst, normally present in little oversaw amounts. Catalysts can be characterized as materials, which change the pace of accomplishment of balance without themselves being devoured simultaneously. In this manner catalyst is a substance that changes the kinetics, yet not the thermodynamics of a chemical response. A catalyst grants responses or cycles to happen more adequately or under milder conditions than would some way or another be conceivable. The fundamental necessities of a catalyst are action, selectivity, dependability, and it ought to be regenerable, reproducible, precisely and thermally steady, economical and ought to have reasonable morphological characteristics.
Author:Ms. Vandana Kaushik , Dr. Manoj Kumar and Dr. Anuj Kumar
Abstract:In this report thin films of Barium Titanate BaTiO3 (BTO) was coated on quartz substrate using dip coating technique. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the formation of BTO thin film with a cubic structure with orientations along (200) plane. Average crystallite size of the film was estimated to be 32.021 nm with dislocation density of value 8.04484 x 10-4 nm-2 . SEM micrograph images observed the dense thin film with the presence of crack and flakes on the surface. EDX analysis observed the high purity of BTO thin film. UV spectroscopy depicted the high transparency of the BTO film in UV region and estimated values of with energy band gap and Urbach energy are 3.77 eV and 0.34456 eV respectively. All the analysis declared the BTO thin films to be suitable for various electro-optic applications.
Author:Anuj Kumar , Amanpal Singh , Dinesh Kumar , Ashish Garg , Viresh Dutta , Sanjay Kumar Swami , Neha Chaturvedi, Manoj Kumar
Abstract:In this report, the synthesis and characterization of ZnO and carbon nanotube (CNT) embedded ZnO composite thin films are presented. The obtained ZnO and CNT composite ZnO thin films are used as an electron transport layer (ETL) for bulk heterojunction (BHJ) inverted organic solar cell (IOSC) with the architecture of ITO/ZnO: CNT/PTB7:PC71BM/MoO3/Ag. Both ZnO and CNT composite ZnO thin films exhibited a highly preferred c-axis oriented (002) diffraction peak and the peak position is shifted toward a lower angle after embedding CNT into the ZnO matrix. The transmittance slightly decreases after CNT is embedded into the ZnO matrix. Completely wrapped CNT with the ZnO was confirmed by Scanning electron microscope (SEM) measurement. The resistivity of ZnO decreased from 2.02 × 10− 2 to 5.61 × 10− 3 Ω-cm and mobility increased from 4.30 to 15.24 cm2 /V-s after adding CNT into the ZnO matrix. CNT composite ZnO thin film surface is found to be hydrophobic, providing good interfacial contact with the BHJ layer resulting to improve fill factor (FF) of IOSC. The performance of IOSC with CNT composite ZnO ETL layer was significantly improved with a power conversion efficiency of 6.76%, open circuit voltage (VOC) of 700 mV, short circuit current density (JSC) of 20.05 mA/cm2 and FF of 48.17%, respectively.
Author:D.R. Agarwal, Dr. Richa Chaturvedi, Dr. Deepika Jain
Abstract:India Possesses nearly 2.4 percent of the total land area of the world, but has to support about 1.4 billion population (about 17.7 % population of the world). The term density of population implies the average number of person living per square km. Here the denominator is fixed and the numerator is constantly increasing. As a result density of population increases, the moment an additional birth take place. Industrialisation has led to the problem of urban slums, where a small room is shared by a number of persons. Everywhere, a crowd is found. Frequent lockdowns in phases (1st phase from 24th March to 14th April 2020, 2nd phase 15th April to 3rd May 2020, 3rd Phase 4th May 2020 to 17th May 2020 and 4th Phase 18th May 2020 to 31st May 2020) have been declared by the government in order to check the corona virus 2019. Social distancing is the only way for protection. All activities have been stopped. Some relaxations have also been announced for a limiting set of economic activities. Pockets have been classified into categories of red, orange, green and containment zones. Opening of offices and shops to a limited degree has been ordered. Migrant workers have left to their hometowns- where job opportunities are not there and these states will have to create jobs for them. When economic activities would start, for example the operation of MSME and large industries, there will be an acute shortage of labour (particularly of semi-skilled and skilled labour). Definitely there would be a gap when they are likely to return back along with unnecessary bearing of relocation costs. Northen and eastern states provide supply in the labour market. They were so desperate that they were undertaking the risk of movement of long distance on foot along with their family members including babies in arms. Some states have also adopted labour reforms- like hiring and firing policies, fixation of wage rate, increase in working hours etc. This paper is an outcome where labour laws are being amended along with so many challenges and uncertainties.
Author:Ms. Monika Narula, D R Agarwal
Abstract:The process of development could only be started with the creation of social and economic overhead-comprising those basic services without which primary, secondary and tertiary productive activities will not function. In SOC are included investments on education, public health, communications, transportation and conventional public utilities like light, water, power, irrigation and drainage schemes etc and basic inputs also. Private enterprises are not willing as well as capable to undertake these activities as the risks are large and profits are low. Moreover, there is a long gestation period in these activities. The sphere of state action has been very fast and all pervading. It includes maintaining of public services, influencing attitudes, shaping economic institutions, influencing the use of resources, influencing the distribution of income, controlling the quantity of money, controlling fluctuations, ensuring full employment and influencing the level of investment. As a result, public sector in India gained heights in the economy. In 1969, the process of nationalisation of commercial banks started, so that there could be proper loaning to the priority sector in accordance with the country. A commercial bank is a financial institution which deal with deposits of different types and advancing loans apart from other activities. After economic reforms of 1991, the basic purpose is to adopt the market-mechanism. The performance of the banking sector is closely related to the growth in the economy. The performance of the banking sector public and private both has been examined on the basis of set parameters during the period of 2017- 18and2018-19. Study is based on both primary with the help of appropriate tools.
Author:Youngwook Noh , Gyu Young Kim , Horim Lee , Jaehak Shin , Kunsik An, Manoj Kumar and Dongjin Lee
Abstract:The intense pulsed light (IPL) post-treatment process has attracted great attention in the device fabrication due to its versatility and rapidity particularly for solution process functional structures in devices, flexible/printed electronics, and continuous manufacturing process. The metal oxide materials inherently have multi-functionality and have been widely used in form of thin films or nanostructures in device application such as thin film transistors, light emitting diodes, solar cells, supercapacitors, etc. The IPL treatment enhances the physical and/or chemical properties of the functional metal oxide through photothermal effects. However, most metal oxides are transparent to most range of visible light and require more energy for post-treatment. In this review, we have summarized the IPL post-treatment processes for metal oxide thin films and nanostructures in device applications. The sintering and annealing of metal oxides using IPL improved the device performances by employing additional light absorbing layer or backreflector. The IPL process becomes an innovative versatile post-treatment process in conjunction with multi-functional metal oxides in near-future device applications.
Author:DR PRANEETA VERMA
Abstract:In this paper, we obtain some results for the mean value of an entire Dirichlet series.
Author:Suruchi Kapur & D. R. Agarwal
Abstract:According to the periodic labour force survey in the year 2017-18, the proportion of working population was 49.7%, falling its share from 55.9% in 2011-12. Nearly half of the working population is not contributing to GDP according to the latest job survey. The average age of India’s population is about 27 years, hence India is quite young. The rate of growth of population is 1.2% per annum(Birth rate being 18.2 per thousand and death rate being 7.3 per thousand, fertility rate being 2.17 children and average life expectancy nearly 70 years). The pace of economic recovery, inflation expectations and output gap were the key points of discussion at the Monetary Policy Committee latest meeting held (October 7-9,2020). The MPC committee kept the key lending rate unchanged at 4% and voted to maintain its accommodative policy stance during the current financial year a special year due to covid -19 could be double digits ( this contraction has never happened except in the year 1979-80 when the sharpest fall was of the order of – 5.2%. These were the days of controls and regulations). It is clearly indicated that the pain the economy is likely to suffer. In the year 1979- 80, the size of the economy was around 187 billion dollar and India ended 2019-20 as a $2.5 trillion economy, naturally the extent of decline during 2020-21 in absolute terms would be more than its size in 1980. After the lockdown, India saw one of its worst phases of employment. The Covid-19 Pandemic may drive as many as 100 million people globally back into extreme poverty. (report published in Daily HT 22-8-2020, p 13). According to International Labour organisation Covid-19 wipes out 500 million jobs globally. India’s unemployment in Oct. 2020 rose to 6.98% compared to 6.67% in the previous month, according to data from CMIE published on Nov 02,2020 National Joblessness climbed to 7.15%in the week ended Nov.1, 2020 as against 6.86more than in the previous week, rural unemployment increased to 7.17% in the same period. According to an oxford report released in Jan 2020 the richest 1%in India holds more than four times the wealth held by 95.3 crores people who represent the bottom 70%. Around 80 crore people in India earn less than Rs. 10,000 a month. Retail inflation jumped to a six –year high of 7.61% in October from a year ago, compared to an increase of 7.27% in September, a reading that is well above the RBI acceptable limit of 4% + 2 for the seventh straight month, data released on Nov. 12,2020 by the ministry of statistics. Unemployment and poverty are the two sides of same coin. The gulf between the rich and the poor is also widening. When India is young, there is a strong case for young leaders and thinkers to come forward.
Author:Suruchi Kapur & D. R. Agarwal
Abstract:The govt. constituted on Inter-ministerial committee in April 2016 to examine issues relating to Doubling of Farmers Income (DFI) and recommend strategies to achieve the same. The committee submitted its report to the govt. in September 2018 containing the strategy for doubling of farmers’ income by 2022. The DFI strategy as recommended by the committee includes seven sources of income growth viz. I) improvement in crop productivity; II) improvement in live stock productivity; III) resources use efficiently (reduction in cost); IV) increase in the cropping intensity; V) diversification towards high value crops; VI) improvement in real prices received by farmers; and VII) shift from farm to non-farm occupations. Agriculture being a state subject, the state government undertakes implementation of programs/ schemes for the development of the sector. Govt. of India supplements the efforts of the state governments through various schemes/ programs. The schemes / programs of the govt of India are meant for the welfare of farmers by increasing production, remunerative returns and income support to farmers.1 According to a number of studies, 86-87% of farmers have come into the category of small and marginal farmers. About 34% of farmers have land holdings in the range of 0.01 to 0.04 hectare. The cost of inputs has gone up significantly and farmers are not getting the remunerative price (150% of the cost as recommended by the Swaminathan committee). With the result, this profession has become economically a non –viable profession and farmers are not able to meet their expenditure and there is an increasing economic disparity between agriculture and non agriculture sectors. Rural youth is not interested to take up this profession that is why this sector has become a good shock absorber in case of emergency like covid-19. The opportunity cost of crop failure has been watched by the nation in form of nonstopping situation of farmers’ suicides and the young generation (demographic dividend ) saying a good bye to this sector. There is a continuous growth in the population but the govt. rejected the need to have a mandatory two child norm or a specific law limiting the size of families in the country. 2 The demand for agricultural output being inelastic, food security can be ascertained only through an increase in productivity. These laws have been enacted by the govt. to open up agricultural trade that would attract investment and technology, open up alternative markets and boost farm incomes. But farmers feel that they would be exploited in the hands of big corporate. The issue is a big communication gap. This research paper is an outcome of the developments, which took place after the approval of three laws (passed by the parliament and approved by the president of India) by the govt.
Author:Suresh Jaiswal, Bishnu Raj Tiwari , Ashok Kumar Sah , Dinesh C Sharma
Abstract:Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is now recognized as a worldwide problem. The objective of the study was to investigate the seroprevalence of H. pylori infection and factors associated in a rural area of Nepal.
Author:Varsha, DR Agarwal
Abstract:India is on a high growth trajectory that is expected to lift millions out of poverty. However presently the quality of many of its citizens is not consistent with the growth story e.g Haryana has shown in growth rate to be higher than the national average but Mewat area has still remained backward so much so is the base line ranking calculated by NITI Aayog this district has been declared at the bottom rung of the ladder is aspirational districts (101) of India. A closer look of the report, one can find high heterogeneity is the living standards and quality life. There are interstate and inter district variations. People in the society need many goods and services to satisfy their wants of different categories based on their resources. In a dynamic and a developing society economic growth is identified by the sustained increase in supply of goods and services in order to meet the demands of present and future population. Rate of economic growth is a function of capital formation-physical as well as human capital.49 key performance indicate were identified to measure the progress of the districts (30% weightage to health and nutrition, 30% to education,20% to agriculture and water resources, 10% basic infrastructure and 10% to financial inclusion and skill development = Totals 5 sectors – 49 indicators -100%). In the education sectors, Mewat got 99th rank out of 101. Hence there is logic to study this sector.
Abstract:The use of optical fiber in field of computer science is a topic of latest research interest. The universe of computing is probably going to change quickly in not so distant future on supplanting the metal wiring between segments in customary PCs with quicker and more effective fiber-optic connections. Optical fiber has huge capacity to transport signals having considerably bigger data, over any longer separations at significantly higher speed than the copper wire connection can do. The guideline of working of optical fiber alongside the parameters influencing and advantages of optical fiber communication are introduced. Utilizations of optical fibers in the field of computer science including PC to PC communication, PC system, web and optical processing are secured.
Author:Vandana Kaushik, Manoj Kumar
Abstract:Perovskite Solar Cells (PSCs) have risen as brightest star in the sky of solar cells with increase in efficiency up to 25%. The inimitable characteristics of perovskite materials e.g. high absorption over the visible region and longish distance before diffusion have been attributed for astonishing performance of perovskite solar cells. Because of the unlike diffusion lengths of holes and electrons, electron transporting layers (ETLs) plays a key role in performance of the perovskite solar cells. TiO2 is the materials, which have been used for ETLs in most frequently testified PSCs. The physical properties of ZnO materials are comparable with that of TiO2 but mobility of electrons in ZnO is much higher than TiO2, Which make it a better option than TiO2. Other than this, there are many simple techniques which have lower cost and consume lesser energy, can be used for the fabrication of ZnO nanomaterials. This review is focused on current advances in the ZnO based ETLs for PSCs and impact of different kinds of ZnO ETLs on the performance of PSCs.Influence of different ZnO nanostructure, deposition and post treatment techniques and doping in ZnO on the performance of PSCs have been discussed. The challenges faced in using ZnO ETLs and solutions to these challenges are also discoursed.
Author:Ms. Vandana Kaushik
Abstract:In the past few years, new advances in structured electromagnetic materials have given growth to materials with negative refractive index, which have both negative dielectric permittivity and negative magnetic permeability in some frequency ranges. These negative refractive index materials exhibit exotic properties which are not easily achieved using naturally occurring materials. This awareness of a negative refractive index opens up new theoretical frontiers in optics, electromagnetism, physics, material sciences, nanotechnology, engineering and many other branches of sciences. One much discussed case is the concept of a perfect lens that allows imaging with sub wavelength image resolution. According to researchers, controlling negative refraction will help in the development of superlenses that magnify the objects too small to see with a conventional optical microscope. Here in this paper we review the basic concepts and ideas of a negative refractive index material.First we will present the ideas of Metamaterials, which enable to design the new materials with negative dielectric permittivity, negative magnetic permeability and negative refractive index then we will discuss the various types and applications of metamaterials.
Author:Ms. Vandana Kaushik
Abstract:E-Waste’ is a term generally used for electronic appliances and gadgets which are near or at the end of their useful life. In the midst E-revolution, we change our appliances almost as often as we purchase new attires. Electronic waste or Ewaste is one of the fast rising difficulties of the world. Worldwide, the E-waste production is estimated at 20 to 50 million tonne per annum. The rising amount of electronic waste from electronic industries is going to reach calamitous proportions. E-waste comprises of both hazardous and non-hazardous elements as their components. E-waste includes many components; some of these components contain toxic substances that can have an adverse influence on human health and the environment if not handled appropriately. In India, E-waste management assumes greater significance not only due to its own produced E-waste but also because of E-waste discarded by other developed countries in India. In this paper we will discuss about the E-waste, their composition, toxic substances present in E-waste and their harmful effects on the human health and ecosystem. In this paper one can see a picture of poor E-waste management in India. This paper also highlights the need of appropriate management of E-waste and responsibilities and roles of government, producers and consumers to reduce the problem of Ewaste so as to save the environment.
Author:Ms. Vandana Kaushik
Abstract:Fidget spinner is a mechanical model of heaven which spins so perfectly and magically on the top of finger of a person. Fidget spinner have attracted an acute mass in pop culture. These are available in many shapes, designs and colors in the market. Fidget spinners help the people to reduce their stress and anxiety. To some extent fidget spinners are useful in treating people with ADHD, anxiety, autism and other mental or psychological disorders. Fidget spinner was the most popular toy among many other toys in early 2017. In this paper we will discuss how fidget spinner really works and what the physics behind its mechanism is. We will discuss how we can find out the spin time and moment of inertia of fidget spinner and how this pocket sized gadget obeys the rules of Sir Isaac Newton.
Author:Ms. Vandana Kaushik
Abstract:Badminton is crowd pleasing racquet sport. Unlike other racquet sport the projectile shuttlecock has highly unique flight features. These unique flight characteristics of shuttlecock have interested many researchers for number of years. Question that arise in my study are what makes the flight features of a shuttlecock so unique and how these unique features of a shuttlecock work in badminton game. Here in this paper we will highlight the versatile behavior of shuttlecock. Shuttlecock glides with a pure drag trajectory. Trajectory of shuttlecock is completely different from the parabola. So the first section concerns the trajectories of the shuttlecock at the scale of badminton court. Shuttlecock always flies keeping its snout ahead. In second section we will study how the canonical shape of shuttlecock helps it to flip after the impact with racquet. The third section will cover the study, how the flight of shuttlecock depends upon its geometry. And finally we will study how these flight features of shuttlecock influences the game of badminton.